A SURVEY OF KERALA HISTORY BY A SREEDHARA MENON PDF

The region of Kerala was possibly engaged in trading activities from the 3rd millennium BCE with Sumerians and Babylonians. According to him, Muziris could be reached in 40 days from the Red Sea ports of Egypt purely depending on the South west monsoon winds. Later, the unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea notes that "both Muziris and Nelcynda are now busy places". There were harbours of Naura near Kannur , Tyndis near Koyilandy , and Bacare near Alappuzha which were also trading with Rome and Palakkad pass churam facilitated migration and trade.

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The region of Kerala was possibly engaged in trading activities from the 3rd millennium BCE with Sumerians and Babylonians. According to him, Muziris could be reached in 40 days from the Red Sea ports of Egypt purely depending on the South west monsoon winds.

Later, the unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea notes that "both Muziris and Nelcynda are now busy places".

There were harbours of Naura near Kannur , Tyndis near Koyilandy , and Bacare near Alappuzha which were also trading with Rome and Palakkad pass churam facilitated migration and trade. Roman establishments in the port cities of the region, such as a temple of Augustus and barracks for garrisoned Roman soldiers, are marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana ; the only surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus. The contact with Romans might have given rise to small colonies of Jews and Syrian Christians in the chief harbour towns of Kerala.

Silk Road map. The spice trade was mainly along the water routes blue. Formation of a multicultural society Edit Further information: Religion in Kerala Buddhism and Jainism reached Kerala in this early period. As in other parts of ancient India , Buddhism and Jainism co-existed with early Hindu beliefs during the first five centuries. Saint Thomas Christians claim to be the descendants of the converts of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Jesus Christ although no evidence that Thomas ever visited Kerala has been established.

In the 4th century, the Knanaya Christians migrated from Persia and lived alongside the early Syrian Christian community known as the St.

Thomas Christians who claim to trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century although no evidence has been established to this claim. The combined number of Jews, Christians, and Muslims was relatively small at this early stage.

They co-existed harmoniously with each other and with local Hindu society, aided by the commercial benefit from such association. Much of history of the region from the 6th to the 8th century is obscure. At its zenith these Later Cheras ruled over a territory comprising the whole of modern Kerala and a smaller part of modern Tamil Nadu. During the early part of Kulasekhara period, the southern region from Nagercoil to Thiruvananthapuram was ruled by Ay kings , who lost their power in the 10th century and thus the region became a part of the Cheras.

Narayanan "became cornerstones of the socio-economic society". Buddhism and Jainism disappeared from the land. The Kulasekhara dynasty was finally subjugated in by the combined attack of the Pandyas and Cholas. He is reputed to have founded four mathas "monasteries" , which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of Advaita Vedanta. His works in Sanskrit concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of advaita nondualism. He also established the importance of monastic life as sanctioned in the Upanishads and Brahma Sutra, in a time when the Mimamsa school established strict ritualism and ridiculed monasticism.

Shankara represented his works as elaborating on ideas found in the Upanishads , and he wrote copious commentaries on the Vedic canon Brahma Sutra , principal upanishads and Bhagavad Gita in support of his thesis. The main opponent in his work is the Mimamsa school of thought, though he also offers arguments against the views of some other schools like Samkhya and certain schools of Buddhism.

Even though Sankara was against all caste systems, in later years his name was used extensively by the Brahmins of Kerala for establishing caste system in Kerala.

Until the end of the 11th century, it was a small principality in the Ay Kingdom. The Ays were the earliest ruling dynasty in southern Kerala, who, at their zenith, ruled over a region from Nagercoil in the south to Thiruvananthapuram in the north. Their capital was at Kollam. A series of attacks by the Pandyas between the 7th and 8th centuries caused the decline of Ays although the dynasty remained powerful until the beginning of the 10th century.

However, the Chera capital, Mahodayapuram , fell in the subsequent attack, which compelled the Chera king, Rama varma Kulasekara, to shift his capital to Kollam. The end of Second Chera dynasty in the 12th century marks the independence of the Venad. In the second half of the 12th century, two branches of the Ay Dynasty: Thrippappur and Chirava, merged into the Venad family and established the tradition of designating the ruler of Venad as Chirava Moopan and the heir-apparent as Thrippappur Moopan.

Kingdom of Kozhikode Edit Historical records regarding the origin of the Samoothiri of Kozhikode is obscure. However, its generally agreed that the Samoothiri were originally the Nairs chieftains of Eralnadu region of the Later Chera Kingdom and were known as the Eradis. Legends such as The Origin of Kerala tell the establishment of a local ruling family at Nediyiruppu , near present-day Kondotty by two young brothers belonging to the Eradi clan.

The brothers, Manikkan and Vikraman were the most trusted generals in the army of the Cheras. Narayanan , a Kerala-based historian, in his book, Calicut: The City of Truth states that the Eradi was a favourite of the last Later Chera king and granted him, as a mark of favor, a small tract of land on the sea-coast in addition to his hereditary possessions Eralnadu province.

Samoothiri allied with Muslim Arab and Chinese merchants and used most of the wealth from Kozhikode to develop his military power. They became the most powerful king in the Malayalam speaking regions during the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Kozhikode conquered large parts of central Kerala, which was under the control of the king of Kingdom of Kochi.

He was forced to shift his capital c. CE further south. In the 15th century, Kochi was reduced in to a vassal state of Kozhikode.

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