Biography[ edit ] Althusius was born in , to a family of modest means in Diedenshausen , County Sayn-Wittgenstein Siegen-Wittgenstein ,  a Calvinist County in what is now the state of North Rhine Westphalia but was then the seat of an independent Grafschaft or County. Under the patronage of a local count, he attended the Gymnasium Philippinum in Marburg from and began his studies in , concentrating in law and philosophy. While studying at Basel, Althusius lived with Johannes Grynaeus for a period of time, with whom he studied theology. For the next several years, he became involved in various colleges throughout the area, variously serving as their president and lecturing on law and philosophy, and in , he was elected to be a municipal trustee of the city of Emden , in East Frisia , where he ultimately made his fame. In , Althusius published his principal judicial work, Dicaeologicae. In this work, he categorized laws into types main types: natural laws and positive laws, and argued that natural law is "the will of God for men.
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Sofocle e Pericle Pericle, stratego di Atene. La tragedia prende le mosse davanti alle mura di Tebe e vede guerreggiare fra loro i fratelli di Antigone e Ismene , Eteocle sostenitore del re di Tebe, Creonte e Polinice avversario del re. Affermata con animo pugnace la sua disobbedienza civile , Antigone affronta serena la morte.
Aristotele di Stagira. Zenone di Cizio. Vivere secondo natura significa, dunque, condurre una esistenza obbediente alla ragione, ponendo freno a ogni passione di sorta. Alla legge della ragione obbediscono, dunque, tanto i saggi, quanto le leggi positive e lo Stato.
Marco Aurelio Antonio. Carneade di Cirene , considerato il fondatore della Terza o nuova Accademia , fu uomo di eloquenza ragguardevole  e il suo pensiero ha rilevante importanza per la filosofia giuridica. Questa vicenda, verificatasi nel a.
Da questa legge della ragione, uguale in ogni luogo e in ogni tempo, sorta prima della fondazione di ogni Stato e di ogni norma positiva, trae le mosse il principio del diritto. La definizione ulpianea del diritto naturale D.
The Origins of Politics According to Althusius
After philosophic and legal studies in Switzerland, Althusius was a professor at the University of Herborn in Nassau until , when he became syndic of the town of Emden in the German province of East Friesland Ostfriesland. He wrote a noted general treatise on Roman law , as well as other legal essays, but his principal work was Politica methodice digesta atque exemplis sacris et profanis illustrata , enlarged and , a systematized tract on all forms of human association. Althusius elaborated five principal types of association, each a combination of the preceeding: the family, the voluntary corporation, the local community , the province, and lastly the state. A series of social contracts sustains the system as new groups are brought into existence. Each of his groups has an independent existence. Through his discussion of the complex relations between levels and the different types of associational arrangements, he developed a comprehensive theory of federalism as the means of achieving national unity, in which sovereignty , resting in the people through their groups, cannot be transferred because it is essential to the being of the political community. While reflecting Calvinist puritanism, Althusius stressed that each social group is to be justified by providing a full and happy life to its members.
Online Library of Liberty
Where did society come from? How did politics come about? Why do people live together? But political thinkers from Plato through to Rawls have tackled questions about the social nature of humans, and how it is that we get into political situations in the first place.
This has been true ever since Otto Gierke in the latter part of the nineteenth century recovered Althusius from two centuries of relative obscurity, and attributed to his Politica Politica methodice digesta the distinction of making one of the pivotal contributions to Western political thought. He saw in Althusius a seminal thinker who was enabled by an exceptional learning in law, theology, politics, and history to formulate a political theory that served as something of a culmination of medieval social thought and a watershed of modern political ideas. The chief features of this theory, Gierke felt, were to be found in its contractual and natural law principles. Friedrich focused attention on the concept of the symbiotic association as the foundation of Althusian theory, and on the Calvinist religion as interpretive of this concept. The names of John Neville Figgis, R. These men have addressed themselves to a range of topics in Althusian scholarship that reflects the wide scope of his thought. It is a striking feature of Althusian studies, however, that until this translation was made there had not been a published translation of a substantial part of the Politica in any vernacular language.
Althusius unterlag noch einer theozentrischen Orientierung. Jahrhunderts angesehen. Volk populus zu. Hauptwerke Iuris romanis libri duo. Ad leges Methodi Rameae conformati. Hanoviae Hanau ,