ACI 214-77 PDF

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The several volumes are arranged to group related material together and may be purchased individually or in sets. If not, suggested guide specifications are available on request from the ACI Certification Department. In spite of these efforts, the users of ACI documents occasionally find information or requirements that may be subject to more than one interpretation or may be incomplete or incorrect.

To assist in the effort for accuracy and clarity, the Technical Activities Committee solicits the help of indi- Viduals using ACI reports and standards in identifying and eliminating problems that may be associated with their use. Title and number of the document containing the problem and specific section in the document; 2. Concise description of the problem; 3.

If possible, suggested revisions for mitigating the problem. PRINCIPE Statistical procedures provide valuable tools for assessing and such an approach is also of value in refining design criteria and specifications, The report discusses briefly the numerous variations that occur in the strength of concrete and presents statistical procedures which are useful in interpreting these variations. Is of strongth tests, Keywords: coofficiant of ion; compresion tart: comprestve strength; concrete constuction ty contol sampling: ondord.

Soonconeec0 2 Chapter 2—Variations in strength oe : 2 2. Concrete, being a hardened mass of heterogeneous materials, is subject to the influence of numerous variables.

Characteristics of each of the ingredi- ents of conerete, depending on their variability, may cause variations in strength of concrete. Variations may also be introduced by practices used in proportioning, mixing, transporting, plac- ing, and curing.

In addition to the variations which exist in concrete itself, test strength variations will also be introduced by the fabrication, testing, and treatment of test specimens.

Variations in the strength of concrete must be accepted, but con- crete of adequate quality can be produced with confidence if proper control is maintained, test results are properly interpreted, and their limi- tations are considered. Proper control is achieved by the use of satis- factory materials, correct batching and mixing of these materials, correct batching and mixing of sired quality, and good practices in transporting, placing, curing, and testing.

Although the com- plex nature of concrete precludes complete homogeneity, excessive variation of concrete strength signifies inadequate concrete control. Improvement in control may permit a reduetion in the cost of concrete since the average strength can be brought closer to specification require- ments.

Strength is not necessarily the most critical fac- tor in proportioning concrete mixes since other factors, such as durability, may impose lower water-cement ratios than are required to meet strength requirements. In such cases, strength will of necessity be in excess of structural de- mands. Nevertheless, strength tests are valuable in such circumstances since, with established mix proportions, variations in strength are in cative of variations in other properties.

To be meaningful, conclusions on strength of concrete must be derived from a pattern of tests from which the characteristics of the concrete can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. Insuf- ficient tests will result in unreliable conclusions.

Statistical procedures provide tools of consider- able value in evaluating results of strength tests and information derived from such procedures is also of value in refining design criteria and speci- fications. This report briefly discusses variations that occur in the strength of concrete, and presents statistical procedures that are useful in the inter- pretation of these variations with respect to re- quired criteria and specifications.

For these sta- tistical procedures to be valid, the data must be derived from samples obtained by means of a random sampling plan designed to reduce the possibility that choice will be exercised by the sampler.

To insure this condition, the choice must be made by some objective mechanism such as a table of random numbers. If sample batches are selected by the sampler on the basis of his own judgment, biases are likely to be introduced that will invalidate results analyzed by the procedures presented here.

Reference 1 contains a discussion of random sampling and a useful short table of random numbers. In addition to the papers from the symposium, it includes reprints of some pertinent papers that were published earlier in the ACI Jourwat, and of discussion that resulted from them.

Although the information given was based on ACT , most of it is still relevant. Differences in strength can be traced to two fundamentally different sources as shown in Table 2.

BACKSTEP WELDING TECHNIQUE PDF

Recommended practice for evaluation of strength test results of concrete (ACI 214-77)

The several volumes are arranged to group related material together and may be purchased individually or in sets. If not, suggested guide specifications are available on request from the ACI Certification Department. In spite of these efforts, the users of ACI documents occasionally find information or requirements that may be subject to more than one interpretation or may be incomplete or incorrect. To assist in the effort for accuracy and clarity, the Technical Activities Committee solicits the help of indi- Viduals using ACI reports and standards in identifying and eliminating problems that may be associated with their use. Title and number of the document containing the problem and specific section in the document; 2. Concise description of the problem; 3. If possible, suggested revisions for mitigating the problem.

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ACI 214-77 Recomended Practice for Evaluation of Strangth Test Results of Concrete 1997

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ACI 214-77 PDF

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