Background Allahabad High Court verdict The Babri Masjid was demolished by Hindu radicals during a political rally which turned into a riot on 6 December A subsequent land title case was lodged in the Allahabad High Court , the verdict of which was pronounced on 30 September In the judgment, the three judges of the Allahabad High Court ruled that the 2. The judgment affirmed that the disputed land was the birthplace of Rama as per the faith and belief of Hindus, and that the Babri Masjid was built after the demolition of a Hindu temple, noting that it was not built in accordance with the tenets of Islam. A similar suit was filed shortly after but later withdrawn by Paramhans Das of Ayodhya. A fourth suit was filed by the Sunni Waqf Board for declaration and possession of the site.
|Published (Last):||28 August 2007|
|PDF File Size:||4.97 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||8.66 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
The original recension of the text, dated to the period between 11th and 14th centuries,  mentions the janmasthana birthplace as a pilgrimage site. He also recorded the local tradition, which believed that emperor Aurangzeb r. His documents show a three-domed structure resembling the mosque, which is however labelled the "birthplace" chhathi. In the courtyard can be seen a platform chabutra to which Hindu devotees are shown circumambulating and worshipping.
After the British took over the State, they put up a railing between the two areas to prevent disputes. During the Gupta times, either Kumaragupta or Skandagupta made it their capital, after which it came to be called Ayodhya. Kalidasa wrote Raghuvamsa here, and referred to Gopratara tirtha Guptar Ghat , where Rama was believed to have entered the waters of Saryu in his ascent to heaven.
Prabhavatigupta , the daughter of Chandragupta II , was a Rama devotee. It was revived by the Gahadavalas , coming to power in the 11th century AD. The Gahadavalas were Vaishnavas. Bakker concludes that there might have been a temple at the supposed birth spot of Rama built by the Gahadavalas. In particular, multiple versions of Ayodhya Mahatmya magical powers of Ayodhya prescribed the celebration of Ram Navami the birthday of Rama. The mosque bore an inscription stating that it was built in by Mir Baqi on the orders of Babur.
According to an early 20th century text by Maulvi Abdul Ghaffar and the surrounding historical sources examined by historian Harsh Narain, [note 3] the young Babur came from Kabul to Awadh Ayodhya in disguise, dressed as a Qalandar Sufi ascetic , probably as part of a fact-finding mission. Here he met the Sufi saints Shah Jalal and Sayyid Musa Ashiqan and took a pledge in return for their blessings for conquering Hindustan.
Lala Sita Ram of Ayodhya, who had access to the older edition in , wrote, "The faqirs answered that they would bless him if he promised to build a mosque after demolishing the Janmasthan temple. Again there was no mention of a mosque in his account. It mentioned mosques having been constructed after demolishing the "temples of the idolatrous Hindus situated at Mathura , Banaras and Awadh etc.
The documents of these activities have been preserved in the Kapad-Dwar collection in the City Palace Museum in Jaipur. Nath , who has examined these records, concludes that Jai Singh had acquired the land of Rama Janmasthan in The ownership of the land was vested in the deity.
The hereditary title of the ownership was recognized and enforced by the Mughal State from He also found a letter from a gumastha Trilokchand, dated , stating that, while under the Muslim administration people had been prevented from taking a ritual bath in the Saryu river, the establishment of the Jaisinghpura has removed all impediments.
Fourteen black stone pillars of 5 span high, which had existed at the site of the fortress, are seen there.
Twelve of these pillars now support the interior arcades of the mosque. The Babri mosque was attacked by Hindus in the process.
Since then, local Hindu groups made occasional demands that they should have the possession of the site and that they should be allowed to build a temple on the site, all of which were denied by the colonial government. The date of the event was 22 December However, the local official K. Nair , known for his Hindu nationalist connections, refused to carry out orders, claiming that it would lead to communal riots. The police locked the gates so that the public Hindus as well as Muslims could not enter.
However, the idols remained inside and priests were allowed entry to perform daily worship. So, the mosque had been converted into a de facto temple. The land was declared to be under dispute, and the gates remained locked. In , a district judge ruled that the gates would be reopened and Hindus permitted to worship inside, providing a major boost to the movement.
Advani began a " rath yatra " pilgrimage procession to Ayodhya in order to generate support for the movement. Advani later stated in his memoirs, "If Muslims are entitled to an Islamic atmosphere in Mecca , and if Christians are entitled to a Christian atmosphere in the Vatican , why is it wrong for the Hindus to expect a Hindu atmosphere in Ayodhya?
They were stopped by the Uttar Pradesh police and the paramilitary forces, resulting in a pitched battle in which several kar sevaks were killed. Accusing the central government led by V. Singh of being weak, the BJP withdrew its support, necessitating fresh elections. A police cordon placed there to protect the mosque was heavily outnumbered. The mosque was attacked with a number of improvised tools, and brought to the ground in a few hours.
Relying on the testimonies of several eyewitnesses, the report stated that many of these leaders had made provocative speeches at the rally that provoked the demolition.
It also stated that they could have stopped the demolition if they had so wished. In July , terrorists attacked the makeshift temple at the site of the destroyed mosque. In , M. Gopal Das, the then head of the Ram temple, received phone calls making threats against his life. Since , by Indian Government order, Muslims were not permitted to be closer than yards away to the site; the main gate remained locked, though Hindu pilgrims were allowed to enter through a side door.
The Allahabad High Court ordered the opening of the main gate and restored the site in full to the Hindus. Hindu groups later requested modifications to the Babri Mosque, and drew up plans for a new grand Temple with Government permissions; riots between Hindu and Muslim groups took place as a result, and the dispute became sub-judice.
The political, historical and socio-religious debate over the history and location of the Babri Mosque, is known as the Ayodhya dispute. Excavations Archaeological excavations by the Archaeological Survey of India ASI in , and in and around the disputed site have found evidence indicating that a large Hindu complex existed on the site. Excavations further yielded: stone and decorated bricks as well as mutilated sculpture of a divine couple and carved architectural features, including foliage patterns, amalaka , kapota-pali ["dove-house" crown-work], doorjamb with semi-circular shrine pilaster, broken octagonal shaft of black schist pillar, lotus motif, circular shrine having pranala water chute in the north and 50 pillar bases in association with a huge structure  Before the archaeological opinion was published, there were some differing viewpoints.
Although chapter 85 of the Vishnu Smriti lists as many as fifty-two places of pilgrimage, including towns, lakes, rivers, mountains, etc. This suggests that there was no significant Hindu temple at the site of the Babri Mosque, or that it had ceased to be one, before the mosque was built.
Ratnagar and Jaya Menon. The witnesses withered under scrutiny and were discovered to have made "reckless and irresponsible kind of statements". He also pointed out that the independent witnesses were all connected, while adding that their opinions were offered without making a proper investigation, research or study into the subject.
A similar suit was filed shortly after but later withdrawn by Paramhans Das of Ayodhya. A fourth suit was filed by the Sunni Wakf Board for declaration and possession of the site. The Allahabad high court bench began hearing the case in , which was completed in After the Supreme Court dismissed a plea to defer the High Court verdict,  on 30 September , the High Court of Allahabad, the three-member bench comprising justices S.
Khan, Sudhir Agarwal and D. Sharma, ruled that the disputed land be split into three parts. The court also ruled that the status quo should be maintained for three months. It also ordered the government to give an alternate 5 acres of land to the Sunni Waqf Board for the purpose of building a mosque.
Full Text: Supreme Court Judgement In Ayodhya Case
Ayodhya verdict live: Country's unity strengthened after verdict, say religious leaders
- DONATA OLEJNIK REPETYTORIUM LEKSYKALNE PDF
- CRYSTALREPORTVIEWER1 EXPORT PDF
- LEVITON 6898 PDF
- SHIV PANCHAKSHAR STOTRA PDF
- HONGOS BASIDIOMYCETES PDF
- INDICACIONES INTUBACION OROTRAQUEAL PDF
- ANDORKA RUDOLF BEVEZETS A SZOCIOLGIBA PDF
- FAAM OUTCOME MEASURE PDF
- FIBER OPTICS AND OPTOELECTRONICS BY RP KHARE PDF