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Background[ edit ] Colonel James Fannin was the commander of the Texian troops at Fort Defiance in late and early Fannin therefore abandoned the fort but proceeded without adequate supplies and without haste on his retreat.
Prelude[ edit ] By on March 19 they began their retreat from Goliad, during a period of heavy fog. Nine heavy artillery pieces with different calibers were ordered by Fannin to be taken by the Texians, along with muskets, but he neglected to ensure that a good amount of food and water was transported. Carts loaded with heavy equipment were being pulled by hungry and tired oxen. Urrea did not realize the Texians had left until The two-hour lead was removed, when a Texian cart crossing the San Antonio River broke, a cannon had to be brought out of the river, and Fannin ordered that the oxen be allowed to graze for a period of time after the Texians had proceeded about a mile past Manahuilla Creek, resulting in the retreat being stopped.
John Shackelford, Burr H. Shackelford would state that Fannin argued that the Mexican army against them was poor, and that Urrea would not follow them. He began his pursuit with, according to Mexican sources, 80 cavalrymen and infantrymen.
Mexican mounted scouts determined the location of the Texians, and reported the size of the force, which Urrea concluded was smaller than he originally thought. He also ordered the artillery he left in Goliad to be brought to him, and that the artillery would be escorted by some of the soldiers he was sending back. Meanwhile, Albert C. The rear guard was not alert, and did not detect the Mexican cavalry that was approaching the Texians.
Shortly after they resumed their march another Texian cart broke down, and its cargo had to be transferred to another one, delaying the retreat again. As the Texians tried to get to high ground to yards away from the position they were in when the cavalry overtook them, the ammunition cart broke. The high grass of the prairie meant the Texian view of the Mexicans was impaired.
The Texians had little water. Each Texian soldier received three to four muskets. The square was three ranks deep. In the corners of the square, the artillery had been positioned.
Fannin stood in the rear of the right flank. The left of the Texian square was confronted by the rifle companies under Morales, and the right was assaulted by the grenadiers and part of the San Luis Battalion.
The Mexican formations involved in this attack on the right of the square was under the personal supervision of Urrea. Mariano Salas fought the front, and Col. By sunset, when Urrea ordered the Mexicans to cease any more major attacks against the square due to a lack of Mexican ammunition, the majority of the action of 19 March was over.
The Mexicans had assaulted the square three times. Making effective use of their bayonets, multiple muskets, and nine cannons, the Texians had prevented the Mexicans each time from breaking the square. Urrea said that he was impressed with the fact that the Texians had managed to maintain the square against the three charges, and he was also impressed with the Texian weapon fire.
Joseph H. Barnard, a Texian, recorded that by sunset seven Texians had been killed. He also recorded that sixty Texians, including Fannin, had been wounded. Forty of the sixty had been wounded several times. Before Texian sharpshooters were able to remove the threat posed by the Mexican sharpshooters, by firing at the flash caused by the Mexican guns, the Mexican sharpshooters were able to inflict more Texian casualties.
As a result of all the fighting that occurred on 19 March, the Texians had suffered at least ten dead and sixty wounded, whilst the Mexicans suffered an unspecified high number of casualties. The fighting of 19 March had not demoralised the Texian soldiers.
They were encouraged by the thought that Horton would succeed in getting Texian reinforcements from Guadalupe Victoria to Fannin. However, Horton had not been able to break through the Mexican defences. However, they were exhausted and hungry, and did not move to the square. Urrea stationed three detachments of Mexican troops around the square, to prevent the Texians in the square from escaping, and during the night Mexican false bugle calls were sounded to keep the Texians alert.
The pain being experienced by the wounded resulted in the general decrease in morale amongst the Texian soldiers during the night. The poor weather during the night further lessened the morale of the soldiers. The lack of water also meant that the artillery could not be used effectively the next day, because water was needed to cool and clean the cannons.
The fighting of 19 March had also left many Texian artillerists casualties, and ammunition for the cannons was low. All these factors contributed to the conclusion by Fannin and other officers during the night that they could not sustain another day of fighting.
An idea for the Texians to escape to a more defend-able position under cover of darkness, before Urrea received reinforcements, was rejected because it was decided that those who were too injured to escape, which included friends and relatives of unwounded Texians, should not be left behind. It was therefore decided that the Texians should attempt to make another stand from their current position the next day. As a result, during the night, the Texians dug trenches and erected barricades of carts and dead animals.
Urrea, meanwhile, had been reinforced with munitions, fresh troops, and two or three artillery pieces from Goliad. He positioned the Mexican artillery on the slopes overlooking the Texian square. They drafted terms of surrender, which included statements that the Texian wounded would be treated, that they would be gain all the protection expected as prisoners of war , and that they would be paroled to the United States of America.
However, Santa Anna had stated earlier that any Texian can only be allowed to surrender unconditionally. As a result, Urrea could not guarantee that all the terms would be followed by Santa Anna. He stated that he would talk to Santa Anna on behalf of the terms of surrender presented by the Texians. The document of surrender was signed by Benjamin C.
Wallace, Joseph M. Chadwick, and Fannin. As a result of the signing, the battle of Coleto ended. Those Texians that could walk were sent to Goliad , under Mexican escort. It would take until about March 23 until those Texians that could not walk were transported to Goliad.
During that time, Mexican physicians were told that wounded Mexicans were a priority to treat, as opposed to the wounded Texians. Fannin arrived in Goliad on March Urrea, meanwhile, had moved onto Guadalupe Victoria, from where he wrote to Santa Anna a letter recommending that the Texian prisoners should be treated with clemency.
The execution became known as the Goliad Massacre. It also illustrated that Fannin was reluctant to co-ordinate his actions with other Texian forces, a trait that was common for many Texian commanders.
Battle of Coleto
Background[ edit ] Colonel James Fannin was the commander of the Texian troops at Fort Defiance in late and early Fannin therefore abandoned the fort but proceeded without adequate supplies and without haste on his retreat. Prelude[ edit ] By on March 19 they began their retreat from Goliad, during a period of heavy fog. Nine heavy artillery pieces with different calibers were ordered by Fannin to be taken by the Texians, along with muskets, but he neglected to ensure that a good amount of food and water was transported.
Coleto Creek Power Station
Water is generally clear throughout the year, while the creek channels are typically stained. Small coves and protected creek channels stay fairly clear throughout the year. In addition to the cover submerged timber and brush provide for game fish species, stands of native aquatic vegetation and hydrilla provide excellent habitat in most areas of the reservoir. Structure in the reservoir consist of islands, submerged humps and long sloping points extending cover with aquatic vegetation.
COLETO CREEK SECURED PDF
Sincere in his promises, General Urrea pleaded with Mexican president Santa Anna to spare the lives of the Texians — and especially Fannin, whom he respected. But numerous complications, and indecision, compounded the time lost. Eventually, on February 25, , Col. Fannin and his troops set out for San Antonio, but stalled quickly as wagons broke down. After hearing of the defeat at the Alamo, General of the Texian army, Sam Houston, sent news of the massacre and orders of evacuation to Fannin. Due to, once again, his indecision but also other factors out of his control, Fannin and his men finally evacuated Fort Defiance on March 19 — torching the city, and incidentally, their food supplies, on their way out of town.
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