The text has further enriched with more information to understand animal behaviour coherently and scientifically. The book attempts to provide a reasonably suitable account of animal behaviour for undergraduate as well as postgraduate students. Although behaviour of animals has fascinated people for a long, behavioural biology has been incorporated in the syllabi very recently. In the s, a comprehensive theory of animal behaviour emerged through the work of Konrad Lorenz and, later of Niko Tinbergen. Biological study of behaviour, in fact came of age as a science when Lorenz, Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch received the Nobel Prize for their contribution to science.
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Eciton army ants rely almost exclusively on vibrational and chemical cues to detect prey, and they refrain from biting or stinging inanimate objects. Because additional workers are recruited only to subdue active prey items, the foraging swarm of ants eventually passes, leaving the surviving harvestman in their wake. The highly coordinated actions of a foraging ant swarm, often involving hundreds of thousands of individuals, illustrate how simple behavioral rules adopted by individuals can result in highly complex and unpredictable behavior at the level of the system as a whole.
Dugatkin, Principles of Animal Behavior, 3rd ed. New York: W. Norton, , chap. Anderson and T. Balch Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology, , pp. Differential Responses to Stimulus Carl Smith Simple, yet highly effective stimuli serve to elicit certain behaviors.
As Niko Tinbergen demonstrated in his pioneering research on the releasers of courtship and aggressive behavior in three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus , the red jaw and throat of breeding males are potent releasers of aggression in conspecific males and act to release courtship behavior on the part of gravid females. In this sequence of clips, three-spined sticklebacks show virtually no response to a blue or green object, but show obvious attraction to an otherwise identical red object placed in their midst.
Differential responses of this sort exemplify how animals have been selected to attend preferentially to certain stimuli among the broad range of stimuli present in their environment. Sensory biases of receivers that appeared originally in the context of foraging can be exploited in terms of attracting both prey and mates.
Actual mate choice decisions, however, typically involve more refined levels of assessment after the initial release of investigatory behavior. Smith, I. Barber, R. Wootton, and L. Moth Puddling Scott Smedley, Tom Eisner Many butterflies and some moths aggregate at sources of water shown here , drinking copious amounts of liquid, and then void that liquid in anal jets projected up to half a meter from their bodies.
Such behavior is performed by male lepidopterans, which not only obtain sodium for themselves, but also provide their female mates with a nuptial gift of sodium that the females bestow on their eggs, increasing their sodium content up to four times the level documented in non-puddler sired eggs.
New York: Norton, , Chap. Castelli, Kristina O. Smiley; E. Adkins-Regan Lab, Cornell University In studying behavior, we must be aware that the methods we employ sometimes alter the behavior of the animals of interest. Zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata females, for instance, preferentially associate with males having red leg bands, and avoid males bearing light blue or green leg bands.
This preference is presumably attributable to selection favoring female mating preferences for males with deeper red bills and leg coloration readily visible among the birds in the present clip , which honestly advertise male fitness. The video clip begins with a male and female zebra finch with the male on-screen and others offscreen both calling.
The next segment shows a male approaching a female and the female moving away. In the penultimate segment, the female in the center performs a gaped-mouth threat display while to her left a male beak wipes two times a common social as well as maintenance behavior in this species ; the pair in the upper right are clumping and beak fence briefly.
In the final segment, an unpaired male mounts a female who is nonreceptive, and the female moves away while the male from the pair to the lower right gives chase.
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Principles of Animal Behavior