Male reproductive system Open pop-up dialog box Close Male reproductive system Male reproductive system The male reproductive system makes, stores and moves sperm. Testicles produce sperm. Fluid from the seminal vesicles and prostate gland combine with sperm to make semen. The penis ejaculates semen during sexual intercourse.
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Recent catheter use Epididymitis is sometimes caused by other things: Chemical or inflammatory non-bacterial epididymitis may happen from urine flowing backwards to the epididymis. This is most often from heavy lifting. The urine causes swelling but no infection.
The drug "Amidarone" can be a cause but this is rare An infection from the bloodstream as with tuberculosis Other unknown causes In any of these cases, the first sign of a problem is often pain in the back of the testis.
Chronic Epididymitis A "chronic" case may result after acute epididymitis. It can also happen without acute symptoms or known infection. In this case, the cause is unknown. Orchitis Orchitis alone is mostly from a mumps virus or other virus infection. In some cases of mumps, interferon can be given to prevent orchitis. Acute Epididymo-orchitis Acute epididymo-orchitis is most often from a bacterial infection.
It can also be caused by a tuberculous infection of the epididymis, but this is rare. Rarely, it can start in the testis and spread to the epididymis. Diagnosis Your health care provider will ask about your past health and examine you.
In acute epididymitis the urine is often infected. In chronic epididymitis the urine typically is not infected. If your provider thinks you have urethritis, they may test a swab of fluid from your urethra. Ultrasound is a non-invasive test.
It uses sound waves bouncing off structures in your body to make a picture. Ultrasound can measure the blood flow in the epididymis, examine the inside of the testis and see other changes in that area of the body. Other tests may be used, but not often. The right diagnosis makes sure you get the right treatment. Treatment Acute Epididymitis and Acute Epididymo-orchitis Treatment often starts with a week course of antibiotics. Most cases can be treated out of the hospital with pills.
The best medicine for you will depend on the type of bacteria found. The most common antibiotics used are: Doxycycline Levofloxacin Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole For bad cases of infection, you may need to stay in the hospital for treatment. Occasionally, for bad cases, narcotics are needed for a few days. Tuberculosis epididymitis is more serious but is very rare. It is treated with anti-tuberculous drugs.
If damage is bad, surgery may be needed to take out the testis and the epididymis "orchiectomy". Epididymitis caused by amidarone is treated by limiting or stopping the drug. Your health care provider will tell you what to do. Epididymitis care involves rest for 1 — 2 days with the scrotum raised if possible. The aim is to get the inflamed area above the level of the heart.
This helps blood flow, which lowers swelling and pain, and helps with healing. Putting ice on the scrotum now and then can also help. In cases due to infection, it helps to drink fluids.
Anti-inflammatory pills like ibuprofen or naproxen help ease pain. They also ease the swelling that causes the pain. If the pain is severe, a short-term narcotic pain medicine may help but is only used for a short period of time at best in most situations. Chronic Epididymitis Chronic epididymitis is mainly treated with drugs and comfort to ease pain. Pain medicine and applying heat are the standard treatments. Or, recommend a pain management specialist. If all else fails, the epididymis can be surgically removed "epididymectomy".
The testis can be left in place. Acute Orchitis Antibiotics are often the best treatment for bacterial infections. Pain medicine may help reduce symptoms. After Treatment Acute Epididymitis and Acute Epididymo-orchitis For infectious cases, it takes two to three days to start feeling better.
Discomfort can last for weeks to months after the full course of antibiotics is taken in some cases. It can take months for the swelling to ease. Rest with the scrotum raised for a day or two helps speed healing.
Cases of tuberculous epididymitis without surgery may need months to heal with medicine. The testis may shrink after treatment. Amidarone epididymitis simply gets better after cutting the dose or stopping the drug.
Chemical epididymitis heals fully with treatment. Chronic Epididymitis Symptoms for chronic epididymitis go away eventually or may come and go. Anti- inflammatory medicine may be needed on and off for a months or years. Symptoms are sometimes better and sometimes worse.
If surgery is done, symptoms ease in most men after a few weeks of healing. Acute Orchitis Pain often goes away after the acute phase. The testis often shrinks. Most acute cases are treated well by antibiotics. Sometimes, a different antibiotic needs to be used or you may require hospitalization with stronger antibiotics given into your veins.
If a pocket of pus "abscess" has formed, more must be done. Surgery to drain the abscess or remove part or all of the epididymis might be needed. This is rare. Other problems that might need surgery: testis death with destroyed blood vessels "testicular infarction" ; an infection that drains through the skin "cutaneous fistula". Can I pass the infection to my sex partner? Yes, if the infection is from an STD. This is most often the cause in men under 40 who have sex.
In this case, the infection can be passed back and forth through sex. Your sex partner needs to be treated as well. No, if the infection is from bacteria in the urinary tract. There is no risk of infecting your partner in this case. Will my ability to father children be reduced?
If your testis has shrunk due to mumps orchitis or tuberculous epididymitis, the testis will make less sperm. In rare cases, the epididymis may be blocked after an infection. This would also reduce sperm from that testis. If only one testis is affected, then most men are able to father a child normally.
Will hormone production by the testis be affected? In most cases, hormones and sperm production are not affected. In rare cases, the affected testis may not be able to make testosterone or sperm. Do epididymis or testicular infections lead to cancer? These infections are not linked to cancer. Most cancer of the testes are painless, but a small percentage will start with pain in this area of the body.
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Epididymitis And Orchitis
Recent catheter use Epididymitis is sometimes caused by other things: Chemical or inflammatory non-bacterial epididymitis may happen from urine flowing backwards to the epididymis. This is most often from heavy lifting. The urine causes swelling but no infection. The drug "Amidarone" can be a cause but this is rare An infection from the bloodstream as with tuberculosis Other unknown causes In any of these cases, the first sign of a problem is often pain in the back of the testis. Chronic Epididymitis A "chronic" case may result after acute epididymitis. It can also happen without acute symptoms or known infection. In this case, the cause is unknown.
Most cases are due to an infection. Causes of infection include the following: A complication from a urine infection Germs bacteria such as E. This can happen at any age and is the most common cause of epididymo-orchitis in men aged over 35 years. This is because partial blockage of urine flow becomes more common with increasing age, due an enlarged prostate or narrowing of the urethra urethral stricture. The urethra is the tube that urine flows out of from the bladder. Partial blockage of urine makes you more prone to develop urine infections. A complication of a urine infection is also the usual cause of epididymo-orchitis in young boys.
What are Epididymitis and Orchitis?
Sometimes the testis is also involved— a condition referred to as epididymo-orchitis. A high index of suspicion for spermatic cord testicular torsion must be maintained in men who present with a sudden onset of symptoms associated with epididymitis, as this condition is a surgical emergency. Acute epididymitis caused by sexually transmitted enteric organisms e. Sexually transmitted acute epididymitis usually is accompanied by urethritis, which frequently is asymptomatic. Other nonsexually transmitted infectious causes of acute epididymitis e.