EPWORTH SLEEPINESS SCALE SPANISH PDF

These examples may contain colloquial words based on your search. Translation of "epworth sleepiness scale" in Spanish Escala de Somnolencia Epworth escala de somnolencia de Epworth Other translations The Epworth Sleepiness Scale ESS , an eight item questionnaire with scores ranging from 0 to 24, is another tool used to screen for potential sleep debt. La Escala de Somnolencia Epworth es una prueba de auto-informe que establezca la gravedad de la somnolencia. An example of a subjective method that measures the effects of obstructive sleep apnea on patients is the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.

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He named the questionnaire after Epworth Hospital in Melbourne, where he established the Epworth Sleep Centre in The ESS is a self-administered questionnaire with 8 questions. Respondents are asked to rate, on a 4-point scale , their usual chances of dozing off or falling asleep while engaged in eight different activities. Most people engage in those activities at least occasionally, although not necessarily every day. The ESS score the sum of 8 item scores, can range from 0 to The questionnaire takes no more than 2 or 3 minutes to answer.

It is available in many different languages. The version of the ESS is the standard version that can be used by most adults.

A license is needed to use it, whether or not license fees are payable. Nor does it measure how often, or for how long, the respondent sleeps during the day. The ESS is not a check-list for identifying those situations in which the respondent most frequently dozes during the day. Questions included in the ESS The particular questions included in the ESS were chosen on a priori grounds to represent activities with a wide range of different somnificities.

Their relative somnificities were later confirmed by analysis of variance Johns, and also by Rasch analysis Hagell et al ; Izci et al, ; Sargento, et al, The relative somnificities of ESS activities are similar in different diagnostic groups and populations, regardless of their levels of ASP and the presence or absence of sleep disorders Johns, , The ESS items were not selected from a list of related questions by principal components analysis, as is commonly done in the development of other questionnaires.

The version of the ESS With the initial version of the ESS some respondents did not answer all the questions, for whatever reasons. Even if one question was not answered, their ESS score was not valid because it was not possible to interpolate item-scores. With this exhortation, nearly everyone answered all questions.

It is available in many different languages as authorized translations. It was a deliberate decision not to specify this recall period more accurately. It was intended to be long enough for the respondent to have experienced at least most of the activities, so they could estimate in retrospect their chances of dozing in each.

There may be circumstances in which this recall period needs to be specified more accurately. For example, clinicians may want to compare ESS scores before and after instigating some particular treatment for a sleep disorder, such as nasal continuous airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnea.

Alternatively 4 boxes, labelled 0 to 3, may be presented for each question, and the respondent then ticks the most appropriate box. Electronic versions are possible too, by arrangement.

The ESS scores derived from interviews, whether by phone or personally, may be valid, but that needs confirmation. However, some people cannot decide on one number and report half-values. It is recommended that these scores be taken at face value. If, after adding them up, the total ESS score includes a half, it should be rounded up to the next whole number. If one or more item-scores are missing, that ESS is invalid because it is not feasible to interpolate missing item-scores.

The ESS score the sum of 8 item-scores is the only number required under most circumstances. With more data, that proved to be incorrect. Adults in Australia who have no evidence of a chronic sleep disorder including frequent snoring had a mean ESS score of 4. That is the same as the range defined by the 2. However, more evidence is needed to be sure that a similar reference range applies to other populations. However, it should not be assumed that sleep disordered breathing is the only factor affecting ESS scores.

Other causes, including depression, are also important. Gender and age have little effect on ESS scores among adults, but ethnicity does. Almost all patients suffering from narcolepsy have severe or moderate EDS by these ESS criteria, as expected Parkes et al, ; Johns, ; van der Heide et al, It is very cheap and easy to use for individuals and large groups. Johns,; Hagell et al, The test-retest reliability of ESS scores measured over a few weeks to a few months has been tested by the intraclass correlation coefficient which has varied between 0.

Gibson et al. Principal components analysis of ESS item-scores has yielded variable results, with a single factor in some investigations, but more than one factor in others. In the latter investigations there has been one dominant factor, as well as one or two minor factors with Eigenvalues not much above 1.

Johns, ; Sargento et al, We might conclude that there is one dominant factor, with high loadings on all scales, but sometimes there are additional minor factors that vary between groups. Rasch analysis of ESS item-scores has enabled differences between the items to be assessed at the same time as differences between people, based on Item Response Theory. The evidence from several different Rasch analyses of the ESS indicates that it has a unitary structure Hagell, et al, ; Izci et al, ; Sargento et al, External Criterion Validity of the ESS Strong evidence for the external criterion validity of the ESS has come from investigations of the sensitivity and specificity of ESS scores for distinguishing narcoleptic patients from normal controls, who have very different ASPs by definition Parkes et al, ; Johns, b.

It has been shown repeatedly that this is not a close relationship, statistically significant in some but not all reports eg. Johns, ; Sangal et al, ; Chervin, et al, The external criterion validity of the ESS has also been tested by examining the relationship between ESS scores and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea, measured by the apnea-hypopnea index AHI.

We might conclude that such relationships are of limited use for testing the validity of any method for measuring daytime sleepiness, whether subjective or objective. For the ESS to remain useful internationally it is important that it is standardised and not modified. In languages other than English, it is important that the meaning of the original English words be retained. The copyright prohibits any changes to the ESS, except under special circumstances and with written permission.

Limitations of the ESS Because ESS item-scores are based on subjective reports, they can be influenced by the same sources of bias and inaccuracy as any other such reports. The ESS is not a diagnostic tool by itself. The ESS is not suitable for use among people with serious cognitive impairment. Nor is it suitable for measuring rapid changes in sleep propensity over periods of hours, eg.

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Translation of "epworth sleepiness scale" in Spanish

He named the questionnaire after Epworth Hospital in Melbourne, where he established the Epworth Sleep Centre in The ESS is a self-administered questionnaire with 8 questions. Respondents are asked to rate, on a 4-point scale , their usual chances of dozing off or falling asleep while engaged in eight different activities. Most people engage in those activities at least occasionally, although not necessarily every day. The ESS score the sum of 8 item scores, can range from 0 to The questionnaire takes no more than 2 or 3 minutes to answer.

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EPWORTH SLEEPINESS SCALE SPANISH PDF

J Clin Sleep Med. Translation issues and years of schooling have been posited as barriers to adequate health assessment of Spanish-speaking Hispanics in the United States. Evaluation of the measurement properties of the Epworth sleepiness scale: Future studies will also need to determine item equivalence with confirmatory factor analysis. The ESS score is highly variable when administered sequentially to a clinical population being evaluated for a potential sleep related breathing disorder.

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