If you depict the metro lines and on a geographic map of the city, you will see a closed loop that does not represent a perfect circle. But, on the associative level, this loop is easier to remember in the form of a circle. They simplify the perception of the map by putting the visual accents and dividing the map into round segments. In addition, these lines, forming a circle, are unique as they intersect with all the main lines of the system. By the year , another circular line will run around Paris. Schematic representation of the city Circular Paris In , Paris public transport operator RATP introduced a new logo featuring a silhouette of a girl looking up, which symbolizes the Seine river passing through Paris, represented in the shape of a circle.
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Bastille station at the beginning of the 20th century By , Paris and the railway companies were already thinking about an urban railway system to link inner districts of the city. The railway companies and the French government wanted to extend main-line railways into a new underground network, whereas the Parisians favoured a new and independent network and feared national takeover of any system it built.
Meanwhile, the population became denser and traffic congestion grew massively. The deadlock put pressure on the authorities and gave the city the chance to enforce its vision. Prior to , the urban transport network consisted primarily of a large number of omnibus lines, consolidated by the French government into a regulated system with fixed and unconflicting routes and schedules.
This plan called for a surface cable car system. On 11 May the Council endorsed the plan, but the French government turned down the plan. Many Parisians worried that extending lines to industrial suburbs would reduce the safety of the city. Unlike many other subway systems such as that of London , this system was designed from the outset as a system of initially nine lines.
Entrances to stations were designed in Art Nouveau style by Hector Guimard. Eighty-six of his entrances are still in existence. Construction was so intense that by , despite a few changes from schedule, most lines had been completed. The shield method of construction was rejected in favor of the cut-and-cover method in order to speed up work. A section opened in between Invalides and the Boulevard Saint-Germain before the plan was abandoned.
It was responsible for building three proposed lines: Line A would join Montmartre to Montparnasse as an additional north-south line to the west of Line 4.
Line C would serve the south-west by connecting Montparnasse station to Porte de Vanves. Because of the high construction costs, the construction of line C was postponed. This was necessary because of steep gradients on NS lines.
Nord-Sud did not become profitable and bankruptcy became unavoidable. Paris planned three new lines and extensions of most lines to the inner suburbs, despite the reluctance of Parisians. It extended north in encompassing the already-built portion between Invalides and Duroc, initially planned as part of the inner circular.
Lines 10, 11 and 14 were thus the three new lines envisaged under this plan. Most lines would be extended to the inner suburbs. The first to leave the city proper was Line 9, extended in to Boulogne-Billancourt ; more followed in the s.
World War II forced authorities to abandon projects such as the extension of Line 4 and Line 12 to the northern suburbs. Services were limited and many stations closed. As a result, Lines 2 and 6 now form a circle. Most stations were too shallow to be used as bomb shelters. The French Resistance used the tunnels to conduct swift assaults throughout Paris.
Many stations had not reopened by the s and some closed for good. Outdated technology limited the number of trains, which led the RATP to stop extending lines and concentrate on modernisation. Thanks to newer trains and better signalling, trains ran more frequently. The population boomed from to Car ownership became more common and suburbs grew further from the centre of Paris.
The main railway stations, termini of the suburban rail lines, were overcrowded during rush hour. The short distance between metro stations slowed the network and made it unprofitable to build extensions. Because of the enormous cost of these two lines, the third planned line was abandoned and the authorities decided that later developments of the RER network would be more cheaply developed by the SNCF, alongside its continued management of other suburban lines.
Distances between stations on the lengthened line 13 differ from that on other lines in order to make it more "express" and hence to extend it farther in the suburbs. Roosevelt station on Line 1 In October , Line 14 was inaugurated. It was the first with platform screen doors to prevent suicides and accidents. It was conceived with extensions to the suburbs in mind, similar to the extensions of the line 13 built during the s. As a result, most of the stations are at least a kilometre apart.
The line runs between Saint-Lazare and Olympiades. Lines 13 and 7 are the only two on the network to be split in branches. A project existed to attribute to line 14 one branch of each line, and to extend them further into the suburbs. This project was abandoned. The line was operated with a combination of driver-operated trains and driver-less trains until the delivery of the last of its driver-less MP 05 trains in February The same conversion is on-going for Line 4, with an expected completion date in Several extensions to the suburbs opened in the last years.
Line 8 was extended to Pointe du Lac in , line 12 was extended to Aubervilliers in and line 4 was extended to Mairie de Montrouge in Accidents and incidents[ edit ] 10 August Couronnes Disaster fire , 84 killed.
Early reports blamed an electrical short circuit as the cause. Fifteen people were injured. The slow average speed effectively prohibits service to the greater Paris area. Above-ground sections consist of viaducts within Paris on Lines 1, 2, 5 and 6 and the suburban ends of Lines 1, 5, 8, and The tunnels follow the twisting lie of the streets.
During construction in a minimum radius of curvature of just 75 metres was imposed, but even this low standard was not adhered to at Bastille and Notre-Dame-de-Lorette.
The tracks are standard gauge 1. Electric power is supplied by a third rail which carries volts DC. The width of the carriages, 2. The City of Paris deliberately chose the narrow size of the Metro tunnels to prevent the running of main-line trains; the city of Paris and the French state had historically poor relations.
The number of cars in each train varies line by line from three to six; most have five, and eight is possible on Line Two lines, 7 and 13, have branches at the end, and trains serve every station on each line except when they are closed for renovations. On some lines additional trains start from an intermediate station.
Bastille station at the beginning of the 20th century By , Paris and the railway companies were already thinking about an urban railway system to link inner districts of the city. The railway companies and the French government wanted to extend main-line railways into a new underground network, whereas the Parisians favoured a new and independent network and feared national takeover of any system it built. Meanwhile, the population became denser and traffic congestion grew massively. The deadlock put pressure on the authorities and gave the city the chance to enforce its vision. Prior to , the urban transport network consisted primarily of a large number of omnibus lines, consolidated by the French government into a regulated system with fixed and unconflicting routes and schedules. This plan called for a surface cable car system.
Metro van Parijs
Metroplan von Paris